Originally posted by Jeffrey Weaver on his New River Notes Site. [mirrored May 2000] Corrections made 1/2004.
R. A. Brock
Unpublished relating to the Hugenot Emigration
II: DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HUGUENOT EMIGRATION TO VIRGINIA.
To Part III: LISTE GENERALLE DE TOUS LES FRANCOIS PROTESTANTS REFUGIES ESTABLYS DANS LA PAROISSE DU ROY GUILLAUME, COMTE D'HENRICO EN VIRGINIA, Y COMPRIS LES FEMMES, ENFANS, VEUSES, ET ORPHELINS
To Part IV: REGISTER CONTAINING THE BAPTISMS MADE IN THE CHURCH OF THE FRENCH REFUGEES AT MANNIKIN-TOWN IN VIRGINIA and Notes
The history of the religious persecution of the Huguenots in France, from the massacre of St. Bartholomew to the infamous outrages which preceded and followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, is so familiar, through frequent graphic narrative, that any attempt at repetition here would be quite unnecessary, were the means to be employed adequate. But recently this topic has been ably considered, and a comprehensive narrative of the establishment of the fugitive Protestants in the New World presented as well. a An unpretentious assembling of scattered data relating to the Huguenot settlement in Virginia, and of families of the lineage, happily to serve as material in abler hands in the future, may only be essayed by the present editor.
Desultory Walloon emigration to Virginia early in the seventeenth century is indicated by names of record in the State Land Registry; and the Walloons of Leyden, planning to follow the example of their Puritan neighbors, the Pilgrim Fathers of New England, presented, July 21, 1621, to Sir Dudley Carleton, the British Ambassador at the Hague, a petition signed by fifty-six heads of families, Walloon and French, all of the Reformed Religion, who desired to come to Virginia. The answer of the Council of the Virginia Company, though not altogether adverse, appears to have been not sufficiently encouraging, as the correspondence went no further. Eight years later, in June, 1629, a similar application was made to the English Government, by Antoine de Ridouet, Baron de Seance, in behalf of a body of French Protestants, asking for encouragement to settle in Virginia. His proposal was favorably entertained. The emigrants destined for Carolina, landed in Virginia, but the colony maintained a languid existence for a few years only. b An act styled "Concerning Denizations," giving encouragement to foreign settlers, was passed by the Colonial Assembly in March, 1657 . It provides that "all aliens and strangers who have inhabited the country the space of ffower yeeres, and have a firme resolution to make this country their place of residence, shall be free denisons of this collony." etc. c
In March, 1659 , and October, 1660, acts of naturalization in favor of John Johnson, millwright, being a Dutchman; and of Nicholas Boate, severally, were passed.d An act passed September, 1671, allowed "any stranger * * upon petition to the grand Assembly, and taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy to his Majesty" to be naturalized, and be capable of office, traffique, and trading, of taking up, purchasing, conveying, devising and inheriting of lands," etc.e Under this act, patents of naturalization were granted by the Assembly, in September, 1673, to Joshua Mulder, Henry Weedick, Christopher Regault, Henry ffayson Vandoverage, John Mattoone, Dominick Theriate, Jeremy Packquitt, Nicholas Cock, Henry Waggamore, and Thomas Harmenson, aliens; in October, 1673, to John Peterson, Rowland Anderson, Michaell Valandigam, Minor Doodes, Doodes Minor,f and Herman Kelderman, aliens; in March, 1675 , to Christian Peterson ; in February, 1576-1677], to Garratt Johnson, and in April, 1679, to Abraham Vincler, John Michaell, Jacob Johnson, John Pimmitt and John Keeton.g
Refuge in Great Britain was sought by the Huguenots early in the sixteenth century, and in the latter decades of that cycle, emigration thither steadily increasing, had contributed immensely to the constituent population and useful citizenry of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, comprising all ranks, from the peasant to the noble-artisans, cloth-makers, lace-makers, silk-weavers, glass-makers, printers and manufacturers. Their skill, industry, and worth speedily secured recognition and consequent prosperity, and there is scarce a branch of literature, science and art in which they have not distinguished themselves. Their descendants may still, at this day, be numerously, and in honorable station, identified by name, though the family designations of by far the greater number have long since been completely Anglicized and ceased to be thus traceable. Between the years 1599 and 1753, there were established in the city of London alone no less than twenty-eight French churches.h
Following the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which was signed on the 18th and published on the 22d of October, 1685 the exodus thither was immense. "It was reserved," pungently remarked President John Jay, in his Introductory Address before the Huguenot Society of America at New York, October 22, 1885 (having previously referred to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572), "for that most Christian and grand monarch, Louis XIV, more than a century later, to renew the persecution of the Huguenots by a crime of similar magnitude; and with folly without a parallel, to lose for France, by means similarly atrocious, hundreds of thousands of those same heretics, who carried industry, intelligence and prosperity, light, truth and happiness to other lands, including our own. Of the number lost to France, Sismondi computes the total number of emigrants at from 300,000 to 400,000; and thinks that an equal number perished in prison, on the scaffold, at the galleys, or in their attempts to escape.
"So far as a moral estimate of the act is concerned, it has been well remarked that the revocation stands at so indefinite a height among the follies of statesmen that no exaggeration of facts can aggravate it."i The significant fact in requital, has been published that eighty-nine descendants of the Huguenots, who were banished from France by the Revocation, returned in 1870 as officers of the invading German army.
Of the army of William of Orange, numbering eleven thousand, which sailed from Holland, and by whose aid he obtained the Crown of England, three regiments, each containing seven hundred and fifty effective men, were Huguenots. To these were added a squadron of horse. There were also about seven hundred officers distributed among the other battalions of the army. In gratitude to these zealous and effective supporters, and in sympathy with the great multitude of their suffering brethren driven violently from their homes and native country simply for their religion, the king invited them to make their home in his new dominions.
Many of such refugees soon turned their eyes to America and sought a home in Virginia. Many families took their residence along the Potomac, Rappahannock and James rivers. j
The expenses of transportation to America was usually borne by the Relief Committee in London. In fact, no small part of the Royal bounty-the English people's bounty-went to pay for the passage of the refugees across the ocean.
In the year 1700, as enumerated in the documents herewith presented, more than five hundred emigrants, at the head of whom was the Marquis de la Muce, were landed in Virginia by four successive debarkations. kThree ministers of the Gospel, and two physicians were among the number. The ministers are Claude Phillipe de Richebourg, Benjamin de Joux, l and Louis Latané. The physicians were Castaing [Chastain?] and La Sosée.
Preparations for this important movement had lung been on foot, and more than once its destination had been changed. Two years before the date of the embarkation, negotiations were opened by the leaders of the body with Dr. Daniel Coxe, "proprietary of Carolana and Florida," for the purchase of half a million acres of land in the latter territory. The tract in question was situated near Appalachee Bay, and the purchasers were to have the privilege of an additional half million of acres at the nominal rent of "a ripe Ear of Indian Come in the season" for the first seven years. At another time Carolina was the objective point of the expedition. third site suggested for the settlement was in Norfolk county, Virginia, on the Nansemond river, in the neighborhood of the Dismal Swamp. m They appear to have settled at different points; a portion about Jamestown, some in Norfolk county, others in Surry, and two hundred or more at a spot some twenty miles above Richmond, on the south side of James river (now in Powhatan county), where ten thousand acres of land, which had been occupied by the extinct Manakin,n tribe of Indians, were given them. They were also exempted from the payment of all taxes for seven years, and were allowed to support their minister in their own way. Accordingly, in dividing the grant into farms, all running down to the river in narrow slips, a portion of the most valuable was set apart for the minister, and was thus possessed and used whilst one resided in the parish. It was afterwards rented out, and the proceeds paid for such occasional services as were rendered by neighboring ministers. Bishop Meade o states, 1857, that services were then regularly held in the old church at Manakin-Town settlement.
According to Beverley, the emigrants, in 1702, "began an Essay of Wine, which they made of the wild grapes gathered in the woods; the effect of which was a strong-bodied Claret, of good flavour." p The interesting fact is exhibited in the documents presented herewith (page 43), that the discovery of bituminous coal in Virginia was near the Manakin-Town settlement early in 1701. This deposit, supsequently known as the Dover Mines, it is alleged, was the first mined in Virginia. It is believed that bituminous coal was not to any extent used as a fuel in the State until after the Revolution, and then for a considerable period only for the heating of residences. q The Dover Mines were last operated in 1870 under the management of General Charles P. Stone, formerly of the United States Army, and late of the staff of the Khedive of Egypt.
Among the names which have been preserved of the ministers who served the parish of King William regularly, or occasionally, were the following: Benjamin de Joux, until his death in 1704; Claude Phillipe de Richbourg, removed to Carolina in 1707 ; Jean Cairon, died in 1716; Peter Fontaine, 1720, 1721 Francis Fontaine, 1722-24; William Finney, 1722, and probably later; William Murdaugh, of St. James Northam, Goochland, and Zachariah Brooke, of Hanover county, in 1727; Mr. Nearne, or Neirn, 1727, 1728 ; David Mossom, of St. Peter's parish, New Kent county, 1727; Mr. Swift and Daniel Taylor, of Blissland parish, New Kent county, in 1728 and 1729; James Marye, 1731-1735 ; Anthony Gavain, 1739. From 1750 to 1780, the Rev. William Douglass, r of Goochland; and other neighboring ministers occasionally served it. supsequently the Rev. Mr. Hopkins, of Goochland, was the minister.
It is exhibited that there were numerous instances of individual settlement of French Huguenots in Virginia prior and subsequent to the influx of 1700. The names of Barraud, Bertrand s, Boisseaut t , Bowdoin u , Cazenove, Contesse, Cottrell v, Forloines, Flournoy w, Fuqua, Ghiselin, Jacquelin, Jouet x, Lacy, Mauzy, Michie, Micou, Moncure, Seay y, Trezevant z and others, have been most estimably represented.
The family, De Cazenove. (or De Castionovo, which is the original orthography of the name), was an old and respectable one in the south of France. The name and history began with a knight, who, in the year 993, added the name to his baptismal appellation, adopted a "new castle" as his coat-of-arms and styled himself Sieur Cazenove. Several knights of the name engaged in the crusades. During the reign of Henry IV, Guilliame De Cazenove was entitled Admiral. But during the religious troubles, from the time of the Reformation to the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the Cazenoves became impoverished. Some of them fled to Switzerland. Paul Cazenove married Marie Plantamore, of Noyons, and his three sons were admitted citizens of Geneva. Jean, the eldest son of Pierre Cazenove, married Elizabeth, daughter of Jacob Bressonnet, Doctor of Theology and president of the Consistory. Paul Cazenove, the son of Jean, was so unfortunate as to live in the days of the French Revolution, and he and his two sons, Jean Antoine and Antoine Charles, were imprisoned with several of the Genevese aristocracy, and his wife was kept under guard at Mont Brilliant, a beautiful country seat on the banks of lake Geneva. They were tried before the Revolutionary tribunal and were condemned to death. But, fortunately, just at this time Robespierre was overthrown and the work of death was stayed. Being obnoxious to the Jacobins (both having been educated at the military school of Calmar, in Germany), the two brothers, in company with Albert Gallatin, sailed to this country to await more quiet times, for Jean had been a military instructor and leader of the aristocracy, and Charles had once held a commission in the unfortunate Swiss body-guard of Louis XVI. The brothers married in this country, sisters, the daughters of Edmond Hagan, a political refugee from Ireland. When the troubles in Europe were stilled, Jean returned to Geneva and died, leaving no male issue. Antoine Charles took up his residence about the year 1799 in Alexandria, Virginia, where, as a commission merchant and a polished Christian gentleman, he passed a long life, highly respected. His descendants are numerous and widely scattered from Massachusetts to Georgia. Another branch of the family settled in Holland. A descendant, Theophile Cazenove, Dutch minister to the United States, led over a colony of Hollanders to Central New York, which settled in and around the town, Cazenove. Still another branch of the family returned from Geneva to France and its representatives now reside in Lyons. Raoul De Cazenove is the head. aa
Dr. Louis Contesse lived and practiced his profession in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Neither the date of his emigration, nor the definite place of his birth in France have been transmitted. bb He patented, August 12, 1725, two tracts of land of 400 acres each on the south side of James river in Henrico county. The first is described as lying near the land of John Lavillain, and the second as being bounded by the lands of Francis and John James fflornoy (Flournoy).cc
His only daughter, Anne Contesse, married John Tyler, Marshall of the Court of Vice-Admiralty of Virginia. Her son, John Tyler, the father of President John Tyler, was born February 28, 1747, and died January 6, 1813. He was successively Speaker of the House' of Delegates, Judge of the General Court, Governor of the State, and Judge of the United States District Court for Virginia. The name, Contesse, survives only as a Christian appellation in Virginia, but the lineage is represented in the names of Tyler, Seawell, Bouldin, Greenhow, and others similarly esteemed.
Edward Jaquelin or Jacquelin, son of John and Elizabeth (Craddock) Jaquelin, of county Kent, England, and a descendant of a Protestant refugee from La Vendee, France, during the reign of Charles IX, of the same lineage as the noble family of La Roche Jaqueline, came to Virginia in 1697, settled at Jamestown, married Miss Cary, of Warwick county, and died in 1730, leaving issue three sons (Edward, the eldest)-neither of whom married-and three daughters : Elizabeth, who married Richard Ambler ; Mary, who married John Smith, who is believed to have been a member of the House of Burgesses, of the Council, and of the Board of Visitors of William and Mary College; Martha, who died unmarried in 1804, aged 93 years. Edward Jaquelin "died as he had lived, one of the most wealthy men in the colony."
Richard Ambler, son of John Ambler, sheriff of county York, England, in 1721, migrated to Virginia early in the eighteenth century, settled at Yorktown, married Elizabeth Jaquelin and had issue nine children, all of whom died at early age, except three sons: Edward, collector of the port of York, married and left issue. He was a man of consideration in the colony, and when Lord Botetourt came over as Governor, he brought a letter of introduction to him from Samuel Athawes, merchant, London.dd John, born December. 31st, 1735, Burgess from Jamestown, and Collector of the District of York River, died May 27, 1766, in Barbadoes. Jaquelin, born August 9, 1742; married Rebecca, daughter of Lewis Burwell, of "White Marsh," Gloucester county, member of the Virginia Council during the Revolution and long State Treasurer. He left issue : Eliza, married first, William Brent of Stafford county, and secondly, Colonel Edward Carrington, of the Revolution, and member of Congress (no issue). Mary Willis married Chief Justice John Marshall. Anne married George Fisher, of Richmond. Lucy married Daniel Call, lawyer and legal reporter, Richmond. Upon the tomb of John Ambler, of Jamestown, Virginia (born September 25th, 1762, died September 8th, 1836), in Shockoe Hill Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia, the Ambler and Jaquelin arms are quartered. Ambler-Sa. on a fesse, or. between three pheons, ar, a lion passant guardant gu. Jaquelin- On a bend, three roses. Crest - Two dexter hands conjoined sustaining a mural crown. The descendants of Edward jaquelin and Richard Ambler have intermarried with the families of Baylor, Byrd, Carter, Nicholas, Norton, Randolph, Wickham, and others of prominence. ee
William Lacy, a grandson of the emigrant ancestor of the family in Virginia, with his wife, Elizabeth, appear to have been residents of King William parish in 1741. In that year a son, David, was born to them, and in 1743, another son, Henry. According to Foote (p.582), William Lacy and his wife, "Catherine Rice," removed to Chesterfield county, where their son Drury, with a twin sister, was born October 5th, 1758. An accident in childhood, the explosion of a musket, by which he lost his left hand decided the future course of the life of Drury Lacy, and induced him to strive to obtain an education to fit himself for a teacher or some profession. While engaged in teaching in a private family, he came under the notice of Rev. John B. Smith, President of Hampden Sydney College, by whom he was encouraged and assisted in completing a classical education. He became a minister of the Gospel; and was for years Vice-President of the college at which he had been educated. He possessed marked powers of oratory. He could lift up his voice like a trumpet, and its silvery notes fell sweetly upon the ears of the most distant auditors in large congregations, wherever assembled, in houses or in the open air. A silver finger affixed to the wrist of his shattered hand gave him the name of the "silver hand."
The Church remembers him as Lacy of the "silver hand and silver voice." He married a Miss Smith, and reared three sons and two daughters. Two of the sons became ministers of the Gospel. The eldest, William Smith Lacy, preached for a time as a missionary, and then became pioneer of the Church in Arkansas. The youngest, Drury, was pastor for some time in Raleigh, North Carolina; then served as President of Davidson College; and supsequently as chaplain in the State hospitals. The third son became a physician. Each of the sons reared a son for the ministry. Of these, one, the Rev. B. T. Lacy, was the chosen chaplain of General T. J. Jackson, Confederate States Army, and another was a chaplain in the Army of Northern Virginia. Two grandsons entered the army; one died in Petersburg from disease brought on by exposure; and the other, Major J. Horace Lacy, saw much active service.
The two daughters each married Presbyterian ministers. The elder became the wife of Samuel Davies Hoge. the son of Rev. Moses Hoge, D. D., Professor of Theology of the Virginia Synod. Her two sons entered the ministry. The elder is the distinguished pulpit orator, Rev. Moses Drury Hoge, D. D., pastor of the second Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Virginia. The younger son, Rev. William James Hoge. D. D., died in 1864, pastor of the Tabb Street Church, Petersburg, Virginia. The youngest daughter married Rev. James H. Brookes, and reared one son for the ministry, who is now pastor of a church in St. Louis, Missouri.
Henry Mauzy fled from France in 1685, emigrated to Virginia and settled in Fauquier county.. He married, probably in England, a daughter of a Dr. Conyers. Their son, John Mauzy, married Hester Foote, grand-aunt of Hon. Henry S. Foote, of the United States and Confederate States Congresses and Governor of Mississippi. Another son, Henry Mauzy, born 1721, married Elizabeth Taylor, born '735. He died in 1804, and she in 1829. They left issue, among other children, the following sons and daughters John, Thomas, Richard, Michael, and the late Colonel Joseph Mauzy, of Rockingham county, whose son Richard is the editor of the Staunton Spectator. Susannah, one of the daughters, born 1765, married Charles Kemper, born 1756. She died in 1843; and he in 1841f
Paul Micou was a fugitive from Nantes. After some years of exile, probably in England, he emigrated to Virginia, and settled in Essex county. He had been educated for the bar, and was a man of great and acknowledged worth. He served as a justice of the peace from 1700 to 1720. He died May 23, 1736; aged seventy-eight years. A son, Paul Micou, Jr., served also as justice of the peace for Essex, 1740-1760,' and a grandson of the same name, for the period 1780-1800. One of his daughters married Rev. J. W. Giborne, of Lunenburgh parish, Richmond county.
Another daughter, Judith Micou, married Lunsford Lomax. His son, Major Thomas Lomax, was the father of Judge John Tayloe Lomax, so long and favorably known in the Virginia courts. Another daughter married Moore Fauntleroy, whose ancestor, Lieutenant-Colonel Moore Fauntleroy, was a patentee of lands in New Norfolk county in 1643. A descendant in the present generation of Paul Micou, the venerable James Roy Micou, has, served as clerk of Essex for quite a half century. Another descendant, Mr. A. R. Micou, formerly editor of the Tidewater Index, is the present State Superintendent of Public Printing. Rev. John Moncure, the progenitor of the worthy family of the name, was of Huguenot descent. One of his daughters, Jean, who possessed the poetic gift, was a highly intelligent lady, zealously pious, and abounding in philanthropy; was the wife of General James Wood, Governor of Virginia. Another honored descendant was the late learned and guileless Judge, Richard C. L. Moncure, of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.
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